elements.wlonk.com

The Elements — Descriptions, Uses and Occurrences

with quick links to find out much more
Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Element Description Use or Occurrence
Click name for more info.
Click audio for pronunciation.
Physical characteristics of
the element in its pure form.
How it is (or was) used or where it is found.
Click for more info about each use or occurrence.
1 H Hydrogen audio explosive gas, lightest element 90% of atoms in the universe, sun and stars, H2O, life's organic molecules
2 He Helium audio inert gas, second-lightest element nuclear fusion in sun and stars, balloons, lasers, supercold refrigerant
3 Li Lithium audio lightest metal, soft, reactive lightweight aluminum alloys, batteries, impact-resistant ceramic cookware (Corningware©), mood stabilizer
4 Be Beryllium audio lightweight metal non-sparking copper alloy tools, aerospace, X-ray windows, beryl gems: emeralds and aquamarines
5 B Boron audio hard black solid borax soap, fertilizer, stiff fibers, sports equipment (golf clubs, tennis rackets, skis), heat-resistant borosilicate glass (Pyrex©), semiconductors
6 C Carbon audio hard diamond, soft graphite basis of life's organic molecules, animals, plants, CO2, wood, paper, cloth, plastic, coal, oil
7 N Nitrogen audio colorless gas 78% of air, organic molecules, protein, muscles, DNA, ammonia, fertilizer, explosives (TNT), refrigerants
8 O Oxygen audio colorless gas 21% of air, H2O, 65% of the human body, organic molecules, blood, breathing, fire, half of Earth's crust, minerals, oxides
9 F Flourine audio yellowish poison gas, most reactive element glowing fluorite, toothpaste, nonstick cookware (Teflon©), CFC refrigerants (Freon©)
10 Ne Neon audio inert gas orange-red neon tubes for advertising signs, lasers, supercold refrigerant
11 Na Sodium
Natrium
audio soft metal, reactive salt (NaCl), nerves, baking soda, antacids, lye, soap, soda ash, glass, papermaking, street lamps
12 Mg Magnesium audio lightweight metal chlorophyll in green plants, talc, basalt, aluminum alloys, cars, planes, bikes, flares, sparklers, antacids
13 Al Aluminum
Aluminium
audio
audio
lightweight non-corroding metal common metal, kitcheware, cans, foil, machinery, cars, planes, bikes, feldspar, granite, clay, ceramics, corundum, gems
14 Si Silicon audio hard metalloid quartz, granite, sand, soil, clay, ceramics, glass, algae, diatoms, semiconductors, computer chips, silicone rubber
15 P Phosphorus audio glowing white waxy solid (also red and black forms) bones, DNA, energy-storing phosphates (ATP), fertilizer, acids, detergents, matches
16 S Sulfur
Sulphur
audio brittle yellow solid skin, hair, eggs, onions, garlic, skunks, hot springs, volcanos, gypsum, rubber, acids, papermaking
17 Cl Chlorine audio greenish poison gas salt (NaCl), bleach, stomach acid, disinfectant, drinking water, swimming pools, PVC plastic pipes and bottles
18 Ar Argon audio inert gas 1% of air, most abundant inert gas on Earth, light bulbs, "neon" tubes, lasers, welding gas
19 K Potassium
Kalium
audio soft metal, reactive salts, nerves, nutrient in fruits and vegetables, soap, fertilizer, potash, matches, gunpowder
20 Ca Calcium audio soft metal bones, teeth, milk, leaves, vegetables, shells, coral, limestone, chalk, gypsum, plaster, mortar, cement, marble, antacids
21 Sc Scandium audio soft lightweight metal aluminum alloys, racing bikes, stadium lamps, furnace bricks, aquamarines
22 Ti Titanium audio strongest lightweight metal, heat-resistant aerospace, racing bikes, artificial joints, white paint, blue sapphires
23 V Vanadium audio hard metal hard strong resilient steel, structures, vehicles, springs, driveshafts, tools, aerospace, violet sapphires
24 Cr Chromium audio hard shiny metal stainless steel (Fe-Cr-Ni), kitchenware, nichrome heaters, car trim, paints, recording tape, emeralds and rubies
25 Mn Manganese audio hard metal hard tough steel, earthmovers, rock crushers, rails, plows, axes, batteries, fertilizer, amethysts
26 Fe Iron
Ferrum
audio medium-hard metal, magnetic steel alloys are mostly iron, structures, vehicles, magnets, Earth's core, red rocks, blood
27 Co Cobalt audio hard metal, magnetic hard strong steel, cutting tools, turbines, magnets (Al-Ni-Co), blue glass and ceramics, vitamin B-12
28 Ni Nickel audio medium-hard metal, magnetic stainless steel (Fe-Cr-Ni), kitchenware, nichrome heaters, coins, nicad batteries, Earth's core
29 Cu Copper
Cuprum
audio colored metal, conducts heat and electricity well wires, cookware, brass (Cu-Zn), bronze (Cu-Sn), coins, pipes, blue crab blood
30 Zn Zinc audio non-corroding metal galvanized steel, brass (Cu-Zn), batteries, white paint, phosphors in TVs and lamps, fertilizer
31 Ga Gallium audio soft metal, melts on a hot day semiconductors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (GaAs), signal lights, tiny lasers
32 Ge Germanium audio brittle metalloid semiconductors, transistors, rectifiers, diodes, photocells, lenses, infrared windows
33 As Arsenic audio brittle metalloid poisons, semiconductors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (GaAs), signal lights, tiny lasers
34 Se Selenium audio brittle gray solid semiconductors, photocopiers, laser printers, photocells, red glass, dandruff shampoo, rubber
35 Br Bromine audio dark red liquid disinfectant, pools and spas, photo film, flame retardant, leaded gas, sedatives
36 Kr Krypton audio inert gas high-intensity lamps, headlights, flashlights, lanterns, "neon" tubes, lasers
37 Rb Rubidium audio soft metal, reactive atomic clocks, global navigation (GPS), vacuum tube scavenger
38 Sr Strontium audio soft metal red fireworks, flares, phosphors, nuclear batteries, medical diagnostic tracer, nuclear fallout
39 Y Yttrium audio soft metal phosphors in color TVs, lasers (YAG, YLF), furnace bricks, high-temperature superconductors
40 Zr Zirconium audio non-corroding neutron-resistant metal chemical pipelines, nuclear reactors, furnace bricks, abrasives, zircon gems
41 Nb Niobium audio high-melting-point non-corroding metal chemical pipelines, superconductors, magnetic levitation trains, MRI magnets
42 Mo Molybdenum audio high-melting-point metal hard steel, cutting tools, drill bits, armor plate, gun barrels, fertilizer
43 Tc Technetium audio radioactive, long-lived first human-made element, only traces on Earth but found in stars, medical diagnostic tracer
44 Ru Ruthenium audio non-corroding hard metal electric contacts, leaf switches, pen tips, catalyst, hydrogen production
45 Rh Rhodium audio non-corroding hard shiny metal labware, reflectors, electric contacts, thermocouples, catalyst, pollution control
46 Pd Palladium audio non-corroding hard metal, absorbs hydrogen labware, electric contacts, dentistry, catalyst, pollution control
47 Ag Silver
Argentum
audio soft shiny metal, conducts electricity best of all elements jewelry, silverware, coins, dentistry, photo film
48 Cd Cadmium audio non-corroding soft metal, toxic electroplated steel, nicad batteries, red and yellow paints, fire sprinklers
49 In Indium audio soft metal solders, glass seals, glass coatings, liquid crystal displays (LCD), semiconductors, diodes, photocells
50 Sn Tin
Stanum
audio non-corroding soft metal solders, plated food cans, bronze (Cu-Sn), pewter cups, glassmaking, fire sprinklers
51 Sb Antimony
Stibium
audio brittle metalloid solders, lead hardener, batteries, bullet, semiconductors, photocells, matches, flame retardant
52 Te Tellurium audio brittle metalloid alloys, semiconductors, photocopiers, computer disk, thermo-electric coolers and generators
53 I Iodine audio violet-black solid disinfectant for wounds and drinking water, added to salt to prevent thyroid disease, photo film
54 Xe Xenon audio inert gas high-intensity lamps, headlights, stadium lamps, projectors, strobes, lasers, spacecraft ion engines
55 Cs Cesium
Caesium
audio soft metal, melts on a hot day, reactive, largest stable atoms atomic clocks, global navigation (GPS), vacuum tube scavenger
56 Ba Barium audio soft metal, absorbs X-rays stomach X-ray contrast enhancer, green fireworks, whitener and filler for paper
57 La Lanthanum audio soft metal optical glass, telescope eyepieces, camera lenses, lighter flints, arc lamps
58 Ce Cerium audio soft metal most abundant rare earth metal, lighter flints, arc lamps, gas lamp mantles, self-cleaning ovens, glass polishing
59 Pr Praseodymium audio soft metal torchworkers' didymium eyeglasses, lighter flints, arc lamps, magnets, yellow glass
60 Nd Neodymium audio soft metal strong magnets (Nd-Fe-B), electric motors, speakers and headphones, lasers, lighter flints
61 Pm Promethium audio radioactive, long-lived human-made, small traces in nature, luminous dials, sheet thickness gauges
62 Sm Samarium audio soft metal magnets (Sm-Co), electric motors, speakers and headphones, infrared sensors, infrared-absorbing glass
63 Eu Europium audio soft metal phosphors in color TVs and trichromatic fluorescent lamps, luminous paint, lasers
64 Gd Gadolinium audio soft metal, best neutron absorber, magnetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancer, phosphors, neutron radiography
65 Tb Terbium audio soft metal phosphors in color TVs and trichromatic fluorescent lamps, computer disks, magnetostrictive "smart" materials (Fe-Dy-Tb) (Terfenol-D©)
66 Dy Dysprosium audio soft metal nuclear control rods, MRI phosphors, computer disks, magnetostrictive "smart" materials (Fe-Dy-Tb) (Terfenol-D©)
67 Ho Holmium audio soft metal infrared lasers, laser surgery, eye-safe laser rangefinders, computer disks, yellow glass filters
68 Er Erbium audio soft metal fiber optic signal amplifiers, infrared lasers, laser surgery, pink glass, sunglasses, vanadium alloys
69 Tm Thulium audio soft metal rarest stable rare earth metal, infrared lasers, laser surgery, phosphors
70 Yb Ytterbium audio soft metal fiber optic signal amplifiers, infrared fiber lasers, stainless steel alloys
71 Lu Lutetium audio soft metal, densest and hardest rare earth metal cancer-fighting photodynamic (light-activated) medicine
72 Hf Hafnium audio non-corroding metal, absorbs neutrons nuclear reactor control rods in submarines, plasma torch electrodes
73 Ta Tantalum audio high-melting-point non-corroding metal labware, surgical tools, artificial joints, capacitors, mobile phones
74 W Tungsten
Wolfram
audio highest-melting-point metal, dense filaments in lamps and TVs, cutting tools, abrasives, thermocouples
75 Re Rhenium audio high-melting-point dense metal rocket engines, heater coils, laboratory filaments, electric contacts, thermocouples, catalyst
76 Os Osmium audio non-corroding high-melting-point hard metal, densest element (same as Ir) electric contacts, pen tips, needles, fingerprint powder
77 Ir Iridium audio non-corroding hard metal, densest element (same as Os) labware, spark plugs, pen tips, needles
78 Pt Platinum audio non-corroding dense metal labware, spark plugs, catalyst, pollution control, petroleum cracking, processing fats
79 Au Gold
Aurum
audio most malleable element, dense non-tarnishing colored metal jewelry, coins, ultra-thin gold leaf, electric contacts
80 Hg Mercury
Hydrargium
audio liquid metal, toxic thermometers, barometers, thermostats, street lamps, fluorescent lamps, dentistry
81 Tl Thallium audio soft metal, toxic low-melting-point mercury alloys, low-temperature thermometers, undersea lamps, photocells
82 Pb Lead
Plumbum
audio dense, soft, non-corroding metal, toxic weights, solders, batteries, bullets, crystal glass, old plumbing, radiation shield
83 Bi Bismuth audio low melting point, brittle metal solders, fuses, fire sprinklers (plugs melt when hot), cosmetics pigment
84 Po Polonium audio radioactive, long-lived first radioactive element found, small traces in nature, anti-static brushes, tobacco
85 At Astatine audio radioactive, short-lived small traces in nature, cancer medicine
86 Rn Radon audio radioactive gas, short-lived environmental hazard, surgical implants for cancer treatment
87 Fr Francium audio radioactive, short-lived, atoms larger than cesium small traces in nature, studied in laser atom traps
88 Ra Radium audio radioactive, long-lived luminous watches (now banned), medical radon production, radiography, radwaste
89 Ac Actinium audio radioactive, long-lived small traces in nature, cancer medicine, neutron source, radwaste
90 Th Thorium audio radioactive, long-lived most abundant radioactive element, nuclear reactor fuel, gas lamp mantles, tungsten filaments, radwaste
91 Pa Protactinium audio radioactive, long-lived small traces in nature, no uses, radwaste
92 U Uranium audio radioactive, long-lived, dense nuclear reactor fuel, nuclear weapons, counterweights, armor-piercing bullets
93 Np Neptunium audio radioactive, long-lived small traces in nature, neutron detectors, dosimeters, possibly nuclear weapons, radwaste
94 Pu Plutonium audio radioactive, long-lived small traces in nature, nuclear reactor fuel, spacecraft power, nuclear weapons
95 Am Americium audio radioactive, long-lived never found in nature, smoke detectors, sheet thickness gauges, radwaste
96 Cm Curium audio radioactive, long-lived never found in nature, scientific instruments, mineral analyzers, radwaste
97 Bk Berkelium audio radioactive, long-lived never found in nature, no uses, radwaste
98 Cf Californium audio radioactive, long-lived never found in nature, scientific instruments, mineral analyzers, radwaste
99 Es Einsteinium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
100 Fm Fermium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
101 Md Mendelevium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
102 No Nobelium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
103 Lr Lawrencium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
104 Rf Rutherfordium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
105 Db Dubnium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
106 Sg Seaborgium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
107 Bh Bohrium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
108 Hs Hassium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
109 Mt Meitnerium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
110 Ds Darmstadtium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
111 Rg Roentgenium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
112 Cn Copernicium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
113 Nh Nihonium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
114 Fl Flerovium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
115 Mc Moscovium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
116 Lv Livermorium audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
117 Ts Tennessine audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
118 Og Oganesson audio radioactive, short-lived never found in nature, no uses
(heaviest element yet made when this was written)

On this chart, a radioactive element is called long-lived if the half-life of any of its isotopes is more than one year; otherwise it is called short-lived. Some super-heavy elements marked short-lived may in future be found to have long-lived isotopes (see island of stability).

Reference: IUPAC is the world authority on the naming of elements (see IUPAC periodic table).